Feeling secure of his success in Italy, Henry returned to Germany. He assigned a series of privileges to the Italian cities which had supported him, marched against the hated Matilda of Tuscanydeclaring her deposed for lese majestyand confiscated her possessions.
The next year he enjoined them to take action against married priests, and deprived these clerics of their revenues. The death of the emperor also marked the disruption of German influence in Italy and of the close relationship between the king and the reform popes.
Furthermore, in a synod held in February of that year, Gregory clearly established the supreme power of the Catholic Church, with the Empire subjected to it. Egbert was murdered two years later, inand his ineffectual insurrection and royal pretensions fell apart. Gregory, however, insisted as a necessary preliminary that Henry should appear before a Council and do penance.
It also forced the princes at Christmas to confirm on oath the succession of his one-year-old son, Conrad. Yet, Canossa meant a change. Inhe expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment.
Henry mentioned two figures from the earlier history of the Church. The pact thus resulted in strained relations between the pope and the German court, and those strains were aggravated by papal claims and disciplinary action taken by Nicholas II against German bishops.
But at no period would he have dreamed of putting the two powers on an equal footing; the superiority of church to state was to him a fact which admitted of no discussion and which he had never doubted.
When the emperor died in Octoberat the age of 39, succession to the throne and survival of the dynasty were assured. In his orders condemning Henry, Gregory addressed St. For the moment it was a political success for the king because the opposition had been deprived of all canonical arguments.
In addition, his love of power, typical of all the rulers of his dynasty, contributed to conduct often characterized by recklessness and indiscretion.
His last years were spent countering the rebellion of his sons Conrad and Henry the future Henry V. Holy Roman emperors, however, always had to struggle to maintain their power, facing conflict on the one hand from various princes and dukes within their kingdoms, and on the other hand from the popes in Rome.
After his mother had freely dispensed of lands during her regency, he began to increase the royal possessions in the Harz Mountains and to protect them by castles, which he handed over to Swabian ministerials higher civil servants directly responsible to the crown. He refused to acknowledge the ban on the ground of its illegality.
Indriven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha. For it is fitting that he who strives to lessen the honor of the Church should himself lose the honor which belongs to him.
After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost.
Peasants and nobles in Saxony were stirred up by the ruthless repossession of former royal rights that had long ago been appropriated by nobility or had become obsolete and by the high-handed and severe measures of the foreign ministerials.
In Germany there was a rapid and general feeling in favor of Gregory, and the princes took the opportunity to carry out their anti-regal policy under the cloak of respect for the papal decision.
A new conflict was inevitable from the very fact that Henry considered the sentence of deposition repealed along with that of excommunication.
Positioned there, Rudolf was geographically and then militarily deprived of his territories by Henry; he was later stripped of Swabia as well. Their independence soon became apparent in the elections of Stephen IX and Nicholas IIwhich were not influenced as under Henry III by the German court; in the new procedure for the election of the popes ; and in the defensive alliance with the Normans in southern Italy.
Gregory, however, refrained from translating his threats into actions, although the attitude of the king showed no change, for he wished to avoid a dispersion of his strength in the conflict soon to break out in Germany.
From tohe fought a long war with the Saxon nobles, but in the midst of this he became caught up in a conflict with an even more powerful figure: In October the princes discussed the election of a new king in Tribur.Gregory, however, shut up in Castel Sant'Angelo, would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters, and the king, pursuant to his treaty with Alexios, marched against the mi-centre.com: Agnes of Poitou.
"Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand [Gregory], at present not pope but false monk." The conflict with the papacy (PAY-puh-see), or the office of the pope, was particularly significant, because both popes and emperors claimed to be the leaders of.
Henry IV and Gregory VII have a strong disagreement about power and authority. In the 11th century Pope Gregory VII excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Their disagreement was about who had the right to appoint church mi-centre.com was only twenty-five. Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV.
In the 11th century Pope Gregory VII excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Their disagreement was about who had the right to appoint church officials. On the following day, 22 FebruaryPope Gregory VII pronounced a sentence of excommunication against Henry IV with all due solemnity, divested him of his royal dignity and absolved his subjects from the oaths they had sworn to mi-centre.comd Cardinal: 6 Marchby Pope Nicholas II.
Gregory VII and the emperor Henry IV (reigned –/06). In this struggle the pope claimed extraordinary authority to correct the emperor; he twice declared the emperor deposed before Henry forced him to flee Rome to Salerno, where he died in exile.Download